What causes teeth to turn black?

What causes black teeth?

Teeth turn black from either extrinsic or intrinsic causes.

Teeth owe their color to the high amount of calcium found in the outer layer of the teeth, known as the enamel.

Over time, additional elements left behind by foods and drinks can start to make teeth yellow or gray. If the teeth turn black, however, a person should visit a dentist as soon as possible.

Extrinsic causes

Woman with black teeth <br>Image credit: Calvin Smith, 2009</br>

Black teeth may be caused by tartar buildup and stains.
Image credit: Calvin Smith, 2009

Extrinsic causes of the teeth turning black come from the outside of the tooth.

These can include:

  • damage to the enamel
  • stains
  • tartar buildup

Some direct causes of staining include:

  • frequently eating or drinking a dark food product, such as coffee
  • taking certain medications, such as liquid iron supplements
  • using certain mouth rinses and toothpastes
  • using tobacco
  • having crowns and fillings made with silver sulfide

Intrinsic causes

The tooth may appear black when damaged from the inside. The most common culprits of black teeth in these cases are decay or cavities. For example, a pulp infection or dead tooth may turn a tooth black.

The damage starts on the inside and works its way to the surface. The black color of the tooth may first appear in spots and eventually cover the entire tooth if left untreated.

If you notice any of the symptoms come in for a visit and we will examine the teeth, diagnose the underlying cause and will then determine the right treatment.

credits: 

Do You Drool When You Sleep? You Are Lucky…

Drooling is expected in babies, who do not yet have full control over their mouths or swallowing muscles. But drooling is often embarrassing for children and adults. Many people may avoid discussing this symptom.

Drooling can occur for many reasons. Most people drool every once in a while. It is especially common while sleeping, when a person swallows less frequently. This can cause saliva to accumulate and seep from the sides of the mouth.

You would tell the truth or you would lie if a friend asks you if you drool oversleeping. The most common answer is no, because for some, it is embarrassing to imagine it in that situation.

Drooling while sleeping is usually frowned upon or can make you feel uncomfortable. But the reality is that it is not only common, but it can be an indicator that you rested very well.

The dream has several phases of more or less equal duration. The main phase is known as rapid eye movement (REM). During the REM phase, the body enters a deep sleep and we experience a restful sleep. In this stage, certain neurotransmitters are inhibited to avoid the muscular movements that would make us run away before a nightmare. Therefore, the famous drooling occurs when you get to deep sleep.

So, if you fall asleep and drool, you are achieving the quality of sleep, something that is very positive for your health.

 

An A.I. distinguishes between biological males and females based on a smile

A new artificial intelligence system has found an accurate way of distinguishing between images of biological males and females — and all it needs to do is to take a quick look at their smile!

Developed by researchers at the U.K.’s University of Bradford, the system is based on a previously discovered insight that the facial muscles move differently when men and women flash a grin. By incorporating this into an image recognition system, the researchers were able to create an A.I. that is 86 percent accurate in distinguishing between the sexes.

“We have studied extensively how people smile, from video clips and with the help of the computer,” lead researcher Professor Hassan Ugail told Digital Trends. “From such detailed analysis, we are able to confirm that the smile of women and men are distinctly different. For example, females tend to have broader or wider smiles and their smiles tend to last longer.”

The algorithm works by analyzing 49 distinguishing features of the face, such as the way that the mouth, cheeks, and areas surrounding the eyes move when a person smiles. Once developed, it was tested on video footage of 109 people smiling to test efficacy.

“The technology can be used as part of a toolkit for person identification,” Ugail continued. “For example, police might want to identify a person from a blurry CCTV footage where the person in question is physically unrecognizable — say, from the facial features, color or the shape — but the facial emotions, such as the smile, may be somewhat clear. In such cases, knowing the person’s gender would immensely help the police to narrow down their search.”

Potentially far more useful than that is the suggestion that smiles may not just break down into male or female categories, but could actually be a unique biometric identity. If it turns out to be correct that each and every one of us smile slightly differently, it might be incorporated into a future Face ID-style biometrics security system which asks users to flash a quick grin in order to unlock their phone or other mobile device.

A paper describing the work was recently published in the journal The Visual Computer.

St. Patrick’s Day Party with a Smile

Have a Happy and Safe St. Patrick’s Day, and avoid  the common holiday expense of an emergency dental visit.

St. Patrick’s Day is notorious for 2 things: green beer and corned beef and cabbage. With alcohol playing such a large role in this annual celebration, it stands to reason that the negative effects of drinking will also join the party. When you get a little tipsy, it’s not just your eyesight and reaction time that suffer.

1.Bad Habits — After you’ve knocked a few back, it’s easy to forget to brush and floss before bed. By forgoing your nighttime dental routine, you let all that sugar and bacteria sit on your teeth overnight.

2.Weight Gain — High amounts of sugar in alcohol is obviously bad for your teeth, but it is also bad for your waistline, which can indirectly affect your mouth. Studies have shown that gum disease may progress more quickly in the presence of higher body fat.

3.Poor Sleep — Although you may fall asleep faster after a few drinks, your sleep patterns are interrupted, and you don’t sleep as well. A Japanese study has linked lack of sleep with more rapid progression of periodontal disease.

4.Chewing Ice — While this may provide a few moments of refreshment between rounds, it can cause severe tooth and gum injuries followed by a painful, expensive visit to your dentist. If ice chewing ever becomes a craving, talk to your dentist right away, because it could signify iron deficiency anemia.

A harmless night out can leave you with a mouthful of bacteria and a lowered ability to protect your teeth.

So grab a toothbrush before you wrap up the celebration and dream of  all the happiness and luck that life can hold – and at the end of your rainbows may you find a pot of gold.

Happy Valentine’s Day – Love Your Teeth Too!

Love is in the air, and you are looking forward to spending some quality time with your sweetheart, as well as indulging on  some Valentine treats? Dental News would like to remind you of some Valentine’s Day Dental Tips to keep your teeth shining.

INDULGE

  • Cross your fingers for chocolate on the big day! Solid chocolate (the ones without chewy or sugary center) don’t tend to stick to the teeth like more chewy treats too, making them better for your oral health. In fact, dark chocolate is an even better option, as it contains less sugar than milk chocolate!
  • Hard candies, especially suckers, are popular on Valentine’s Day but basically give teeth a real thorough sugar bath.
  • Although candies that are sticky, sweet and sour may hold a special place in our hearts, we must remember how dangerous they can be to our teeth and even braces too. These hard or gummy candies tend to be acidic to your teeth, causing the enamel that protects them to be worn down.  Instead, why not give your loved one flowers, a card, or even a romantic dinner at home?
  • When it comes to chocolate, choose a high quality brand that is preferably 50% or more cocoa as it is more pure and free of additives that can hurt your teeth.
  • We definitely recommend much softer treats such as peanut butter cups or other melt-in-your-mouth doughs.

LOVE YOUR TEETH TOO

  • After you indulge, make sure to show your teeth some tender loving care. Brush and floss between the teeth, around the brackets, and at the gum line.
  • Don’t forget that your tongue carries bacteria too and needs to be brushed from the back to the front just as often!
  • Replenish your teeth with high alkaline foods such as vegetables that will keep them strong.
  • Be sure to drink water and practice a good, thorough hygiene routine afterwards!
  • Check in regularly with your dentist.

Credits: Dental News

Should You Be Brushing Your Tongue?

Your mouth is a source of lots of bacteria. Some of the bacteria in your mouth actually protects your teeth and gums. Other kinds of bacteria are not so helpful and can be the cause of bad breath and even tooth and gum disease. Not only can allowing bad bacteria to flourish in your mouth cause larger issues with your gut health and gut dysbiosis, it can lead to gum disease, bleeding gums, dental caries, etc. If you are experiencing any of these issues you need to address them for the sake of your entire microbiome.

Caring for your teeth and gums goes beyond merely brushing and it is far more important than just having a nice smile. We all know by know how important the gut health is to our health, our overall wellness, and our ability to ward of illness and disease. Gut health stems from happy, balanced gut flora (intestinal bacteria). Dozens and dozens of books are now available on caring for our gut microbiome and rightfully so…your gut health is pivotal to many processes in our body. Ironically though, your oral microbiome gets far less attention even though it is the beginning of the digestive system and the first line of defense against harmful microbes.

For starters, you need to address your diet by eating more prebiotic fiber that promotes the growth of beneficial microorganisms in the mouth and intestines.You also need to add probiotic fermented foods and an oral probiotic. Secondly you need to avoid food and drink that harm beneficial bacteria…ie sugar, soda, alcohol, and mouthwash.

Lastly you need to address the bad bacteria in your mouth with good oral care. Think about all the crevices and pockets where bad bacteria can hide and thrive. Brushing and flossing are essential for healthy gums and teeth.

But what about another place that bad bacteria can be lurking? Your tongue!

Entire communities of microbes live on the tongue and they can be causing foul smelling breath but also issues with poor digestion, a sluggish liver, and bad bacteria and yeast (candida) overgrowth. This is why you should be brushing or scraping your tongue a couple times a day to remove bacteria, food debris, fungi, toxins, and dead cells from the surface of the tongue. You do not want those toxins to lay on the tongue and be absorbed into the body.

So, yes if you don’t already, go ahead and include it in your daily routine and have a minty fresh breath all day long.

Credits: Nature Moms / Apple News

 

Smile! It can add (happy) years to your life.

Who knew? According to U.S. News Health, Smile and dental health are on top of the list of small habits you can incorporate in to your days to live a happy and longer life.

Smile

Smiling big and wide is related to living longer, according to research published in the journal Psychological Science. These researchers looked at professional baseball players’ photos and compared the lifespan of players with big smiles, no smiles and partial smiles.

Even after controlling for factors that are related to longevity such as education level and marital status, bigger smiles were still related to a longer life. The researchers found that the biggest smilers lived to an average of almost 80 years, while their straight-faced teammates reached only an average of 73 years. Why? In part because smiling builds your immune system and improves your mood and stress levels. And as an added bonus, smiling makes you more attractive.

Floss daily

Although there is some debate, it appears that daily flossing decreases low-grade inflammation, which increases the risk of early heart attack and stroke. Flossing also reduces gingivitis (a gum disease that causes irritation, redness and swelling in the part of your gum around the base of your teeth) compared to brushing your teeth alone, according to a review published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. That’s probably because flossing not only gets rid of food trapped between your teeth, but it also removes the bacteria that forms before it has a chance to harden into plaque – something your toothbrush cannot do.

The American Dental Association recommends flossing at least once a day to get rid of plaque in areas between the teeth that are difficult or impossible to reach with a toothbrush. As long as you floss once a day, it doesn’t matter when. Unfortunately, only 3 out of 10 Americans floss at least once a day, and over 32 percent never floss, according to data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Improve your posture

Turns out that mom and dad were right: Sitting up straight is important. Your body is designed so that your heart and lungs work better when you have good posture since it reduces the excessive force that muscles and joints need to absorb. A long-term University of London study of about 4,000 men found that those who lost height as they aged – in other words, their posture worsened over time – were more likely to die prematurely from cardiovascular or respiratory conditions than their counterparts who maintained good posture. And, slouchier postures cause neck and back pain and makes you look less confident and feel less competent.

To have good posture when sitting down, keep your chin parallel to the floor; your shoulders, hips and knees at even heights; and your knees and feet pointing straight ahead.

 

Wash your hands

Washing your hands is a simple way to longer life. In fact, hygiene is a main factor in why our life expectancy has almost doubled in the last 150 years. That’s because hand-washing kills bacteria and keeps us healthier. Improper hand-washing accounts for nearly half of all foodborne illness in the U.S. In one study, almost half of the participants had bacteria on their hands of potential – brace yourself – fecal origin. But rinsing with water cut that number in half, and adding soap left just 8 percent of people’s hands dirty.

Although two-thirds of adults typically wash their hands in a public restroom with soap and water, few people scrub for the recommended 20 seconds. To avoid being another dirty statistic, wet your hands under clean, running water and apply soap. Then, lather your hands – including the backs of your hands, between fingers and under nails – for at least 20 seconds. Rinse your hands with water and dry them using a towel or allow them to air dry.

 

Credits: U.S. News Health,  Heather Hausenblas

No more toothbrush! Here comes the smartbrush.

Smartrush is the fastest patented Oral Hygiene Device! Brush your teeth in just 3 seconds! it works with iPhone / Android. For Adults and kids. And it comes in a Smart mouthpiece that is claimed to reinvent the toothbrush, enables 3-second teeth cleaning.

The science fiction-like device is a mouthpiece boasting a large number of tiny brushes, alongside a micropump system which distributes toothpaste. Put it into your mouth and the idea is that it cleans every tooth simultaneously, saving you the indignity of having to move a toothbrush around your mouth to polish your pearly whites one at a time. You can even control the brush speed from your smartphone, via a connected app.

“In our opinion, in the toothbrush industry there has been no real innovation for decades,” inventor Nicola Nichele told Digital Trends. “If you think of electric toothbrushes, for example, you can easily realize that these are only slightly changed from time to time with different types of bristles or slightly different shapes, but there has never been real innovation in terms of time and advantages. We believe that in many areas there are big improvements we can make to make people’s lives easier. We hope this will be only the first of many innovative projects that will help all people to change their habits for the better.”

Once you’ve brushed your teeth with the Unico smartbrush, simply put it back into its dock and it will be automatically rid of bacteria using the cleaning powers of ultraviolet light. Fully recharged and restored, it will be ready for your next three-second clean. Or so it claims.

The concept looks all kinds of intriguing, but it may be worth waiting to see whether this one lives up to the hype before parting with your hard-earned cash. It is currently hoovering up funds on Kickstarter, however, where it has raised close to $960,000.

Clearly there is tremendous interest in the toothbrush evolution, but until there is proof that it can do the job better than our current trusted one, Let’s just keep on brushing ;))

 

Tell your “Ai Dentist” where it hurts

It was just matter of time before we need it to talk about your Ai Dentist 🙂

The metropolitan city of Vantaa is now offering an algorithm-driven assessment programme to help automate preliminary patient care. Developed by the Finnish company Klinik Healthcare Solutions, the programme is designed to recognise health conditions and deduce the degree of an ailment’s urgency.

“In acute situations, the programme’s AI suggests that customers contact emergency dental services immediately. The evaluation of the need for care is suspended at this point,” says Hanna-Mari Kommonen, an oral hygiene specialist. In less urgent cases, dental service personnel contact the customer on the next business day at the latest.

The service presents a series of questions that ask customers to describe their symptoms, and makes deductions about what kind of dental care is needed.

24/7 help for aching teeth

The goal is to speed up the evaluation process, as the electronic service would be available 24 hours a day. The new service is hoped to help ease up long waiting times for phone consultations and appointments. Additionally, after the virtual consultation, symptoms and complaints will be known to dental staff when employees contact the person to book an appointment.

The new service does not, however, direct the customer to immediately make an online appointment. Finnish law prevents this, stating that actual health professionals must be the ones who decide about what kind of appointments are necessary.

Depending on the urgency assessment, the programme also assists with patient flow management by suggesting that customers book a time, for example, in three days or three weeks.

Long-term plans for cost-cutting digitalisation

Vantaa has earlier introduced e-services to its health care services with a real-time chat service and a similar Klinik AI programme that has been in use at the Myyrmäki district health care centre since August.

“Vantaa is one of the first service providers in all of Finland to launch e-services so comprehensively, extending to oral hygiene as well,” says Kommonen.

There are plans in Vantaa to further develop the electronic booking services and even roll out remote dental consultations. This would entail oral hygienists making video contact with customers and the use of intraoral cameras.

“The idea is to increase the amount of self-service opportunities. This would mean we could cut down on the personnel we need. Current legislation prohibits us from downsizing our staff, but this service creates added value for our customers,” Kommonen says.

How about personal data safety? The developers, Klinik Healthcare Solutions, say the programme has been taken into use without issue in regional health care centres in Central Finland and the municipalities of Saarikka and Vesilahti – and now Vantaa.

“We use a one-way encryption method that doesn’t require any passwords or bank codes to log in. Analysis from our data security experts has established that the service is a safe place to operate,” says Kommonen.

For now however please call our office to tell us ‘where it hurts’.

World’s First Robotic Dental Implant

A robot dentist has carried out the first successful autonomous implant surgery by fitting two new teeth into a woman’s mouth, mainland media has reported.

A robot just implanted two 3D-printed teeth into a woman’s mouth all on its own. The procedure took place recently in China and the researchers who developed it hope it can help the country’s dentist shortage problem, reports the South China Morning Post.

Prior to the surgery, the robot was oriented to the patient’s head and mouth and researchers then programmed the device with all of the necessary information for it to complete the procedure. That included the angles and depth required for accurate placement of the implants. After testing the programmed movements, the operation was carried out. It took about an hour and though medical staff were present during the procedure, none of them assisted the robot while it worked. Afterwards, the staff determined that the robot had implanted the teeth with high precision.

Due to a dentist shortage, South China Morning Post reports that while around 400 million people need dental implants in the country, only about one million are done each year. Further, when people turn to less qualified individuals in order to get needed dental work done, they often end up with additional problems. Robots stand to increase service rates and complete operations with fewer errors.

Dentistry has increasingly enlisted the help of robotics, notes the Post, with robot usage increasingly common in orthodontic procedures and root canal surgeries, as well as in student training. Yomi, a robot system designed to assist dentists in dental implant procedures, was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in March.
You can check out the video below for some shots of the robot in action.

 

Gum disease ‘raises the risk of dementia by up to 70%’: Findings could see regular dental care promoted as a way of warding off Alzheimer’s

Having gum disease could increase the risk of developing dementia by up to 70 per cent, according to new research. Results from a study of 28,000 people indicate that those who brush their teeth more are less likely to develop the disease. And experts said regular dental care may be promoted as a method of warding off Alzheimer’s – if a link is confirmed by further research.

Gum disease, or periodontal disease, occurs when a build-up of plaque causes swelling and infections. Researchers believe that inflammation caused by years of mouth problems could eventually damage the brain. Gum disease has already been linked to health problems such as heart disease and early cancer deaths. And other studies have indicated that dementia patients with gum disease tend to deteriorate at a faster rate. Now, a Taiwanese study claims that the condition could indicate a risk of dementia.

Researchers studied 9,300 patients who had recently been diagnosed with chronic periodontitis, a common gum disease. These patients were then compared with 18,700 other participants, who did not suffer from gum disease. After ten years, 115 of the participants with gum disease developed Alzheimer’s, compared with 208 without.

But the results, published in the journal Alzheimer’s Research & Therapy, showed those who suffered from gum disease for more than ten years were significantly more likely to develop dementia. Those participants with long-term gum disease were 70 per cent more likely to develop Alzheimer’s during their lifetimes. Chang-Kai Chen and colleagues from the Chung Shan Medical University in Taichung wrote: ‘This finding supports the notion that pro-inflammatory factors due to [gum disease] may slowly and progressively induce neurodegenerative changes that lead to the development of Alzheimer’s disease.’

But the authors added that further study was ‘required to verify this hypothesis’.

James Pickett, head of research at the Alzheimer’s Society, told The Times: ‘Although at first it does not seem obvious that gum disease could be linked to brain health, it is plausible that an immune reaction triggered by the gum disease could make its way to the brain and contribute to the development of dementia.’ Mr Pickett stressed that it was difficult to separate the effects of illnesses such as diabetes and depression, which are linked to both conditions.

He added that while a 70 per cent increase sounds like a big risk, only about one in 100 people with gum disease went on to develop dementia. Matthew Norton, of Alzheimer’s Research UK, added: ‘While this study is interesting, we still don’t know whether gum disease is causing an increased risk, and can’t tell whether treating gum disease could be an effective way of reducing the risk of Alzheimer’s. Evidence suggests that the best way to maintain brain health as we get older is to not smoke, eat a healthy diet, only drink in moderation, stay mentally and physically active and keep blood pressure and cholesterol in check.

Super tooth is here – developed UCSB Scientists

Fewer trips to visit with us may be in your future, and you have mussels to thank.

Inspired by the mechanisms mussels use to adhere to inhospitable surfaces, UC Santa Barbara researchers have developed a new type of dental composite that provides an extra layer of durability to treated teeth. The potential payoff? Longer lasting fillings, crowns, implants and other work.

“It’s as hard as a typical dental restoration but less likely to crack,” Kollbe Ahn, a materials scientist at UCSB’s Marine Science Institute, said of the composite. The research is highlighted in the journal Advanced Materials. The paper, of which Ahn is the corresponding author, is the result of collaboration between research and industry.

On average, a dental restoration lasts five to 10 or so years before needing replacement. The time frame depends on the type of restoration and how well the patient cares for the treated tooth. However, the continual onslaught of chewing, acidic and hard foods, poor hygiene, nighttime tooth grinding, generally weak teeth and even inadequate dental work can contribute to a filling’s early demise — and another expensive and possibly less-than-pleasant experience in the dental chair.

According to Ahn, one of the primary reasons restorations fall out or crack is brittle failure of the bond with the surrounding tooth. “All dental composites have micro-particles to increase their rigidity and prevent their shrinkage during their curing process,” he explained. “But there’s a trade-off: When the composite gets harder, it gets more brittle.”

With enough pressure or wear and tear, a crack forms, which then propagates throughout the entire restoration. Or, the gap between the tooth and the restoration results in restoration failures, including marginal tooth decay.

So Ahn and his colleagues looked to nature — mussels, to be exact — to find a way not only to maintain strength and hardness but also to add durability. Having perfected the art of adhering to irregular surfaces under the variable conditions of the intertidal zone — evolving to resist pounding waves, the blazing heat of the sun and cycles of salt water immersion and windy dryness — mussels presented the ideal model for more durable dental restoration materials. The byssal threads they use to affix to surfaces allow them to resist the forces that would tear them from their moorings.

“In nature, the soft collagenous core of the mussel’s byssal threads is protected by a 5-to-10 micrometer thick, hard coating, which is also extensible and thus, tough,” Ahn said. This durability and flexibility allow the mollusks to stick to wet mineral surfaces in harsh environments that involve repeated push-and-pull stress.

Key to this mechanism is what the scientists call dynamic or sacrificial bonding — multiple reversible and weak bonds on the sub-nanoscopic molecular level that can dissipate energy without compromising the overall adhesion and mechanical properties of the load-bearing material.

“Say you have one strong bond,” Ahn explained. “It may be strong but once it breaks, it breaks. If you have several weaker bonds, you would have to break them one by one.” Breaking each weak bond, he continued, would dissipate energy, so the overall energy required to break the material would be greater than with a single strong bond.

This type of bonding occurs in many biological systems, including animal bone and tooth. The mussel’s byssus contain a high number of unique chemical functional groups called catechols, which are used to prime and promote adhesion to wet mineral surfaces. The new study shows that using a catecholic coupling agent instead of the conventional silane coupling agent provides 10 times higher adhesion and a 50 percent increase in toughness compared to current dental restorative resin composites.

While research has proven this toughening mechanism in soft materials, this study is one of the first — if not the first — to prove it with rigid and load-bearing materials.

This proof-of-concept, which also demonstrates no cytotoxicity, could mean tougher, more durable dental fillings. And that, in the long run, could mean fewer dental visits. Because each replacement filling also requires the dentist to file the surrounding tooth to prime its surface, given enough replacements a tooth might need to be crowned or extracted; and if not replaced, the tooth loss could have adverse consequences for the individual’s diet and health.

The next step, Ahn said, is to increase the material’s durability even further.

“By changing the molecular design you could have even denser coupling agents that exist on the surface, and then we can have a stronger and more durable dental composite,” he said, estimating a commercial product within a couple of years.

Ahn credits the interdisciplinary research environment at UCSB for the development of the new load bearing polymer composites such as this dental restoration material. The project builds on the fundamental mussel-mimetic research that UCSB molecular biologist Herbert Waite conducted over several decades, which has been brought into collaboration with Jinsoo Ahn, a dentist from Seoul National University. This project also builds on the work of other UCSB researchers, including surface physicist Jacob Israelachvili’s expertise with surface interactions and forces; physical chemist Joan-Emma Shea’s simulations of how individual molecules adsorb to surfaces; and mechanical engineer Megan Valentine’s expertise in mechanical testing.

Source : UC Santa Barbara

Credit: STRN

Gum disease places older women at a heightened risk of cancer

New research has confirmed that periodontal disease is tied to an elevated risk of several types of cancer, such as esophageal cancer, breast cancer, and gallbladder cancer, especially in mature women.
Periodontal disease, or gum disease, is also known as “periodontitis” and it is caused by infection and inflammation of the gums. It affects many adults and it is particularly common among seniors. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), gum disease affects over 70 percent of people aged 65 and above in the United States.

Although the CDC note that this disease affects more men than women, a significant proportion (38.4 percent) of the adult female U.S. population live with periodontitis.

Recent research has shown that women with gum disease are also more likely to develop breast cancer. However, until now, no studies had looked at the impact of periodontitis on cancer risk more generally.

Jean Wactawski-Wende, Ph.D., from the State University of New York at Buffalo – in collaboration with colleagues from other U.S. institutions – has, for the first time, investigated the association between gum disease and several types of cancer in women.

The study confirmed previous findings, but it also revealed previously undetected connections, such as the link between gum disease and gallbladder cancer. The findings are published in the journal Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

Periodontitis increases overall cancer risk

To understand the correlation between periodontal disease and the risk of cancer in women, the researchers worked with a cohort of 65,869 female participants from the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. The women were aged between 54 and 86, and most of them were white, non-Hispanic.

The participants reported their gum disease diagnoses through questionnaires between 1999 and 2003, and they were monitored for cancer detection up until September 2013.

On average, the follow-up period for each participant was of 8.32 years. At the end of this period, 7,149 women had been diagnosed with a form of cancer.

The researchers found that women who had reported a diagnosis of periodontal disease had a 14 percent higher risk of developing any type of cancer.

Esophageal cancer was the type most frequently associated with gum disease, as women with periodontitis were more than three times likelier to develop it compared with women without oral health problems.

“The esophagus is in close proximity to the oral cavity, and so periodontal pathogens may more easily gain access to and infect the esophageal mucosa and promote cancer risk at that site,” explains Dr. Wactawski-Wende.

Other types of cancer that exhibited a significant association with gum disease were lung cancer, gallbladder cancer, melanoma, or skin cancer, and breast cancer.

 

Credits

Grapes May Help Prevent Tooth Decay

Grapes are the new wonder berries that are being praised for their powerful antioxidants called flavonoids. These help in fighting free radicals in the body and reduce the incidence of inflammation that can be a cause of many chronic ailments. They are also rich sources of vitamin A and vitamin C in addition to essential minerals like potassium, calcium, iron, phosphorus, magnesium and selenium. Regular consumption of grapes has been known to be helpful in treating constipation, indigestion and kidney disorders and now; a new study indicates that they may also prevent tooth decay. A group of Scientists from the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Dentistry have found a natural compound in grapes that can strengthen your teeth and also boost the strength of fillings.

The team suggests that grape seed extract may help reduce the incidence of tooth extractions by increasing the longevity of resin fillings or tooth-coloured fillings that typically last for only five to seven years. Grape seed extract is derived as a by-product of wine making and has been credited for health benefits like improved heart function and better blood circulation. The results of this new study, published in the journal of Dental Research, show that the grape seed extract can toughen dentin which is a type of tissue that makes up the bulk of the tooth and it lies beneath the hard external enamel. Therefore, when any damage is caused to your teeth, the remaining structure is retained with the help of fillings and grape seed extracts can make the bond with the materials used stronger.

A lot of people opt for resin fillings as they are look better, but a big problem with them is that they may not be as tough as amalgam fillings that can last up to 10 to 15 years or more. Researchers suggest that this problem can be fixed by using grape seed extract. When tooth decay occurs, the fillings start to deteriorate and the seal is lost.  In this case, the resin bond to the dentin can be strengthened with the help of grape seed extract and that may also help in preventing further tooth decay.

The researchers explain that one of the main causes of tooth decay is the production of acid from plaque which builds up on your teeth. If plaque is not cleared frequently, the acid it releases can begin to damage the surface of your tooth causing holes that are commonly known as cavities. The cavity begins to eat away at the second level of tooth material that lies beneath the enamel which is the dentin and that can impact the fillings too. According to the, interlocking the resin and the dentin provides better adhesion and reduces the chances of tooth decay.

National Men’s Health Month and Dental Health

Our patient’s healthy and beautiful smile is top priority during any visit with Dr. Kathi Mansell. Dr. Mansell encouraging men to pay close attention to their oral health, especially During National Men’s Health Month.

Men’s Health Month is a national health education program created to heighten the awareness of preventable health problems and encourage the detection and treatment of disease among men and boys.

Oral health in men has been linked to many other health factors from heart disease to reproductive health issues and cancer. The American Academy of Periodontology has found that gum disease is higher in men (56.4 percent) than in women (38.4 percent).

Gum disease and heart disease are linked, and research shows gum disease increases risk of heart disease.

Men are also two times more likely to get oral cancer, according to the American Cancer Society. This has been attributed to higher rates of alcohol and tobacco use by men.

Research has found that men with a history of gum disease are 14 percent more likely to develop cancer than men with healthy gums.

All the while, oral cancer is on the rise. A report by FAIR Health, an independent nonprofit organization dedicated to bringing transparency to healthcare data, reports that health insurance claims for oral cancer jumped 61 percent from 2011 to 2015, with three times more men than women reporting having oral cancer.

Our dental team is dedicated to providing personalized and gentle care for you.

 

Bright Summer Smile with Professional Teeth Whitening

The hot summer months are here, and this time of year brings big events like graduations, weddings, vacations and family get-togethers. But with plenty of fun outdoor opportunities, there has never been a better time to consider teeth whitening for summer. Whether it’s a pool party or high school reunion, presenting your radiant smile is sure to impress.

From an office procedure to a purchasable toothpaste, you have options available to you.

Professional Bleaching Procedures

First, you need to determine if you qualify for whitening treatment, and which type is best for you. Do you have porcelain work or discolored front teeth? Is there currently decay on your front teeth? If any of these issues apply to you, consult with Dr. Mansell before pursuing a whitening application.

Professional whitening treatments vary. Some require dental impressions so the office can deliver trays that you can use to apply whitening gel in the comfort of your own home. Other systems use laser or ultraviolet light during in-office procedures to activate the whitening solution to your teeth applied in our office. Because these types of whitening can take a few dental appointments to complete, summer is a great time to schedule these treatments before the kids go back to school and calendar gets busier.

As always, Dr. Mansell will help you choose which treatment is best for you, after considering all options for in-office tooth whitening.

Call us today (480) 757-0007, and have a bright Summer Smile 🙂

Getting reinfected from your toothbrush?

Your toothbrush is loaded with more germs than you care to think about. After all, its No. 1 job is digging out leftover food and bacteria from the corners of your mouth, which a 2014 study published in the Scientific World Journal estimated houses more than 700 bacterial species.

“People grow all sorts of crazy things on their toothbrush,”by a dentist, who wasn’t involved in the research, told Fox News. That can be harmful if bacteria from a cold virus, for instance, harbors on your toothbrush and you end up getting reinfected.

Here’s how often you should change your toothbrush

Your best defense: Replacing your toothbrush often. The American Dental Association says the magic number is every three to four months.

That’s not only because of bacteria, though. “Everyone sees the toothbrush as a safe, wonderful, efficacious thing whereas dentists kind of look at it the opposite,” Burhenne said. Patients can do damage by over-brushing and by using old toothbrushes where the soft dome-shaped bristles have become sharp.

Burhenne tells patients who are prone to over-brushing to swap out their toothbrush every month. The same goes for electric toothbrush heads. “The toothbrush is moving at 30,000 cycles per minute and the human hand cannot make that motion, so I would say go to Costco, buy a 12-pack, and replace it every month,” Burhenne said. “The toothbrush head, because of that motion, wears down quicker.”

To keep bacteria at bay before the three or four-month mark hits, store your toothbrush upright in a glass to allow it to air dry. You can also swish it in 100 percent white vinegar, which the researchers from the 2014 study found effectively (and cheaply) wipes out bacteria.

Training to become a scuba diver this summer? Start at Dr. Mansell

Scuba divers may want to stop by their dentist’s office before taking their next plunge. A new pilot study found that 41 percent of divers experienced dental symptoms in the water, according to new research from the University at Buffalo.

Due to the constant jaw clenching and fluctuations in the atmospheric pressure underwater, divers may experience symptoms that range from tooth, jaw and gum pain to loosened crowns and broken dental fillings.

Recreational divers should consider consulting with their dentist before diving if they recently received dental care, says Vinisha Ranna, BDS, lead author and a student in the UB School of Dental Medicine.

“Divers are required to meet a standard of medical fitness before certification, but there are no dental health prerequisites,” says Ranna, who is also a certified stress and rescue scuba diver.

“Considering the air supply regulator is held in the mouth, any disorder in the oral cavity can potentially increase the diver’s risk of injury. A dentist can look and see if diving is affecting a patient’s oral health.”

The study, “Prevalence of dental problems in recreational SCUBA divers,” was published last month in the British Dental Journal.

The research was inspired by Ranna’s first experience with scuba diving in 2013. Although she enjoyed being in the water, she couldn’t help but notice a squeezing sensation in her teeth, a condition known as barodontalgia.

Published research on dental symptoms experienced while scuba diving is scarce or focuses largely on military divers, says Ranna, so she crafted her own study. She created an online survey that was distributed to 100 certified recreational divers. Those who were under 18-years-old, ill or taking decongestant medication were excluded.

Her goal was to identify the dental symptoms that divers experience and detect trends in how or when they occur.

Of the 41 participants who reported dental symptoms, 42 percent experienced barodontalgia, 24 percent described pain from holding the air regulator in their mouths too tightly and 22 percent reported jaw pain.

Another five percent noted that their crowns were loosened during their dive, and one person reported a broken dental filling.

“The potential for damage is high during scuba diving,” says Ranna, who has completed 60 dives.

“The dry air and awkward position of the jaw while clenching down on the regulator is an interesting mix. An unhealthy tooth underwater would be much more obvious than on the surface. One hundred feet underwater is the last place you want to be with a fractured tooth.”

The study also found that pain was most commonly reported in the molars and that dive instructors, who require the highest level of certification, experienced dental symptoms most frequently. This frequency is likely attributed to more time spent at shallower depths where the pressure fluctuations are the greatest, says Ranna.

The Professional Association of Diving Instructors has issued more than 24 million certifications around the world. As scuba diving gains popularity as a recreational sport, Ranna hopes to see oral health incorporated into the overall health assessments for certification.

Patients should ensure that dental decay and restorations are addressed before a dive, and mouthpiece design should be evaluated by manufacturers to prevent jaw discomfort, particularly when investigating symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorder in divers, says Ranna.

Additional investigators on the study include Hans Malmstrom, DDS, professor; Sangeeta Gajendra, DDS, associate professor; Changyong Feng, PhD, associate professor; and Michael Yunker, DDS, assistant professor, all of the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry.

Ranna is conducting a follow-up study with an expanded group of more than 1,000 participants.


Story Source:

Materials provided by University at Buffalo. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

E-cigarettes ‘just as harmful as tobacco’ for oral health

Electronic cigarettes are often marketed as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes. When it comes to oral health, however, new research suggests vaping may be just as harmful as smoking.
Researchers suggest vaping may be equally – if not more – harmful for oral health than smoking.

In a study published in the journal Oncotarget, researchers found that the chemicals present in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) vapor were equally as damaging – in some cases, more damaging – to mouth cells as tobacco smoke.

Such damage can lead to an array of oral health problems, including gum disease, tooth loss, and mouth cancer.

E-cigarettes are battery-operated devices containing a heating device and a cartridge that holds a liquid solution. The heating device vaporizes the liquid – usually when the user “puffs” on the device – and the resulting vapor is inhaled.

While e-cigarette liquids do not contain tobacco – a highly harmful component of conventional cigarettes – they do contain nicotine and other chemicals, including flavoring agents.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the use of e-cigarettes has increased in recent years, particularly among young people. In 2015, 16 percent of high-school students reported using the devices, compared with just 1.5 percent in 2011.

E-cigarettes are considered by many to be safer than conventional smoking, but because the devices are relatively new to the market, little is known about the long-term effects of vaping on health.

In particular, study leader Irfan Rahman, Ph.D., professor of environmental medicine at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry in New York, and colleagues note that there has been limited data on how e-cigarette vapor affects oral health.

Flavored vapor worsens damage to gum tissue cells

To address this gap in research, the team exposed the gum tissue of nonsmokers to either tobacco- or menthol-flavored e-cigarette vapor.

The tobacco-flavored vapor contained 16 milligrams of nicotine, while the menthol flavor contained 13-16 milligrams of nicotine or no nicotine.

The researchers found that all e-cigarette vapor caused damage to gum tissue cells comparable to that caused by exposure to tobacco smoke.

“We showed that when the vapors from an e-cigarette are burned, it causes cells to release inflammatory proteins, which in turn aggravate stress within cells, resulting in damage that could lead to various oral diseases.”

Irfan Rahman, Ph.D.

The researchers note that nicotine is a known contributor to gum disease, but e-cigarette flavoring appeared to exacerbate the cell damage caused by e-cigarette vapor, with menthol-flavored vapor posing the most harm.

While further research is needed to investigate the long-term effects of e-cigarette use, Rahman and team believe their findings indicate that the devices may have negative implications for oral health.

“Overall, our data suggest the pathogenic role of [e-cigarette] aerosol to cells and tissues of the oral cavity, leading to compromised periodontal health,” they conclude.

E-cigarette vapor damaged, killed 53 percent of mouth cells in 3 days

Another study recently published in the Journal of Cellular Physiology builds on the findings from Rahman and colleagues, after finding a high rate of mouth cell death with exposure to e-cigarette vapor over just a few days.

To reach their findings, Dr. Mahmoud Rouabhia, of the Faculty of Dental Medicine at Université Laval in Canada, and colleagues placed epithelial cells from the mouth in a chamber that contained a liquid similar to saliva.

To simulate vaping, the researchers pumped e-cigarette vapor into the chamber at a rate of two 5-second puffs every 60 seconds for 15 minutes a day. This was performed over 1, 2, or 3 days.

On analyzing the vapor-exposed epithelial cells under a microscope, the researchers identified a significant increase in the rate of cell damage and death.

The rate of damage or death in unexposed cells is around 2 percent, the researchers note. However, they found that with exposure to e-cigarette vapor, the number of dead or dying cells rose to 18 percent, 40 percent, and 53 percent over 1, 2, and 3 days, respectively.

While the cumulative effects of the cell damage caused by e-cigarette are unclear, the researchers believe their findings are a cause for concern.

“Damage to the defensive barrier in the mouth can increase the risk of infection, inflammation, and gum disease. Over the longer term, it may also increase the risk of cancer. This is what we will be investigating in the future.”

Dr. Mahmoud Rouabhia

Is it the future or overkill? What do you think?

The market of the issue of dental hygiene is one of many in which parents often feel that society demands they uphold the program or risk being accused of negligence. Parents have to make sure their kids’ teeth get brushed. This may be one of those attempts to get kids (and some adults) interested beyond the dentist’s advice. What do think?

 

 

We are really really nice, come see for yourself! NO Dental Anxiety!

 

Looking back on dental anxiety.

So many people are afraid of going to the dentist psychologists don’t know how to quantify it

No one likes going to the dentist, but some people really hate it.

“It is not easy to give over control to someone who is going to crawl inside your mouth and do some work, in your mouth, where you breathe and swallow,” Sandy Abrahamson, a nurse practitioner in Washington state, told the Washington Post.

Abrahamson herself had such severe fear of going to the dentist she put off treatment for a painful tooth for years, until it rotted in her mouth and needed to be removed entirely. She’s in good company—some estimates suggest close to 60% of people have anxiety about going to the dentist, and about 5-10% of people have “dental phobia,” an actual condition in the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Usually dental anxiety—or dental phobia, which is an acute, intense fear—manifests as avoidance of the dentist, and when patients do finally book an appointment, they may have trouble sleeping the night before, and sometimes cry or can’t breathe once in the exam room.

Naturally, dentists want their patients to visit them regularly, so they’ve tried to come up with ways to ease dental anxiety. But in order to test whether a particular intervention, like therapy or sedation, works, they have to agree on a way to measure anxiety before and after.

Since 1969, scientists have developed no less than seven dental anxiety questionnaires and scales:

  • Corah’s Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS)
  • Kleinknecht’s Dental Fear Survey (DFS)
  • Stouthard’s Dental Anxiety Inventory
  • Weiner’s Fear Questionnaire
  • Fear of Dental Treatment Cognitive Inventory
  • Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS).
  • Index of Dental Fear and Anxiety (IDAF-4C+)

Psychologists and dentists can’t agree on which of these works best to evaluate treatments. In a 1993 review (paywall) of the six oldest questionnaires (the IDAF-4C+ was introduced in 2010) researchers concluded Kleinknecht’s DFS is best—but also that it’s generally better to use multiple surveys. Practically, this would mean that in addition to filling out a survey including questions about whether or not dental work causes perspiration, muscle tension, or nausea (like in the DFS), patients would also answer questions asking them to rank whether they are “not anxious” to “extremely anxious” in various dental scenarios, like drilling or being injected with anesthesia (like in the MDAS).

The obvious next step would be to combine all of these questions onto one ranking system—but disagreement on how exactly to do so is likely what prompted scientists to create so many the first place. It could be that each of these scales has their own strengths; some may be able to highlight specific anxieties, such as a fear of certain procedures like anesthesia or drilling, while others focus on a more general fear of the dentist.

The good news is that despite the confusion when it comes to measuring dental anxiety, teams of psychologists and dentists can work with patients to help them overcome their fears regardless of how they score on these tests. At the Dental Fears Clinic at the University of Washington, for example, patients can receive a combination of therapy and sedation to help them feel more comfortable at the dentist. And psychologists at King’s College London have found that just five sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy can help patients overcome their dental fears.

It’s an obscure field of work, but it benefits both parties. Dentists get to treat more patients, and more patients have healthier teeth. And it gives some dentists the opportunity to overcome their own fears—one 2012 study found that about 28% of dental students themselves were prone to dental anxiety.

Credit Katherine Ellen Foley

…remarkably attractive to the opposite sex!

With Valentine’s Day just around the corner,  it is the perfect opportunity to pucker up and take a look at our oral health. But, dental advice from the Britts?

The British Dental Health Foundation says a simple smile can make others feel at ease around you and can be a powerful show of emotion, which can prove remarkably attractive to the opposite sex!

Chief Executive of the British Dental Health Foundation, Dr Nigel Carter OBE, believes we should be showing off our smiles more often and it could be the key for a successful Valentine’s date.

Dr Carter says: “When preparing for a date we probably spend more time and money on our hair or the clothes we wear, rather than caring for our teeth. Smiling shows confidence and can be particularly endearing. Studies have shown smiling can have a positive effect on our relationships, careers and overall image.

“We can also tell a lot about a person from their smile. A great smile can be a good measurement of overall hygiene and general lifestyle, demonstrating someone’s cleanliness while revealing what they eat and drink, as well as if they smoke or not.”

While a healthy smile can be beneficial for attraction, the opposite can be said of poorer oral health.

A new poll by the charity has revealed our partner’s biggest smiles crimes, with men named as the guiltiest culprits of bad oral health habits.

Respondents cited ‘food stuck between the teeth’ as their greatest turn-off ahead of the most romantic day of the year, claiming 40 per cent of the overall vote.

Bad breath (24 per cent), stained teeth (21 per cent) and not brushing twice a day (16 per cent), made up the remainder of our partner faux pas.

In a battle of the sexes, more than three quarters (76 per cent) pointed the finger firmly towards the men, marking them as the ones with the worst oral health habits.
“It doesn’t matter how expensive your bouquet was or how posh the restaurant is, if you haven’t got clean teeth the chances are your date won’t be impressed. All of these smile crimes are an instant turn-off, but they continue to affect many of us on a regular basis,” Dr Carter adds.

“By adopting a simple but effective daily oral hygiene routine we can eliminate all of these bloopers.

“Brushing your teeth last thing at night and on at least one other time during the day with a fluoride toothpaste, cutting down on how often you have sugary foods and drinks and visiting your dentist as often as they recommend, are some of the most basic things we can do but all will make a positive difference to the health of our mouths.

“Food being stuck between the teeth may be our number one oral health bugbear when it comes to romance but only one in five regularly clean between their teeth. To help remedy this, use interdental brushes or dental floss to clean between your teeth at least once a day.”

OK, we all know that. But, it may be a stretch that a dental cleaning will get you a date, however one thing is for sure  – ahead of Valentine’s Day, if you stop by for a dental cleaning and pucker up with a beautiful smile, you just may get a second date :))

 

 

Confident, Smiling People Live…

… well, differently. While some people just have that “it factor.” You can certainly create you own “it factor” with a dazzling bright healthy smile.

Confident people command attention whenever they walk into a room. But the truth is, they weren’t born with a confident gene. Instead, their daily behaviors contribute to their self-assured personality.

That’s good news: It means anyone can adopt the habits confident people practice on a regular basis. Below are just some of the ways those with extra self-possession approach life differently than everyone else.

1. They’re more productive.

Confidence = hustle. Research suggests that confident people may be more productive because their can-do thoughts inspire real action. It’s no wonder confident people seem to own the office.

2. Their body language helps boost their confidence.

Studies show that how a person carries him or herself influences how he or she feels on the inside. A tall posture and even stretching can help people feel a surge of power — and confident people take advantage of those little adjustments.

3. They aren’t self-assured all the time.

All people have their flaws, even people with the “it factor.” The difference lies in recognizing those insecurities and carrying on with life despite them. Research shows self-acceptance is paramount to a happier life, but it’s a habit many people rarely practice. Confident people aren’t superhuman — they just accept their imperfections wholeheartedly and live a happy life regardless.

4. They actively pursue success.

“No” is simply not in a confident person’s vocabulary, at least when it comes to success. Confidence is crucial when pursuing a career, according to a study published in the journal Basic and Applied Social Psychology. The research found that more likely someone is able to picture themselves achieving their goal, the more likely they’re going to be able to do it, Fast Company reported.

5. They channel their inner celebrity.

A confident person’s mantra is “I am Beyonce.” OK, maybe that’s just this author’s, but regardless, there’s power in celebrity. Research published in the journal Personal Relationships found that when people wrote down qualities they shared with their favorite celebrities of the same gender, they felt much more compelled to become their best selves.

6. They stick to their convictions.

Confident people place trust in their own opinions — but not without listening to others, of course. As confidence coach Susie Moore explained in a HuffPost blog, confident people hear all sides of an argument, but ultimately, they stick to what they feel is best.

“Other people are well meaning and sometimes err on the side of caution,” she wrote. “Confident people listen to other people but do not let their difference of perspective take them off track.”

7. They don’t fear failure.

All people have their setbacks. Confidence isn’t doing everything right, it’s pushing on even after being wrong. And sometimes that can pay off in more than just confidence: Research suggests that people who appear more self-assured are also seem more intelligent.

8. They’re not afraid of being confident.

Confident individuals don’t shy away from asserting themselves, whether they’re actually feeling comfortable or just faking it until they make it. As singer Demi Lovato’s recent single so poignantly asks, “What’s wrong with being confident?”

The answer: Nothing at all.

I couldn’t agree more with Lindsay Holmes Deputy Healthy Living Editor, The Huffington Post .

Chocolate can prevent damage to the teeth !?!?

Chocolate Is Useful To Protect The Teeth Against Damage

Chocolate is the food that is not easily stale, because chocolate contains polyphenols as antioxidants that may prevent chocolate from stale. Cocoa beans contain alkaloids which causes a bitter taste. Having in mind that the benefits of chocolate are extremely diverse, a variety of processed cocoa continues to experience growth. Chocolate many processed into chocolate snack or a chocolate bar.

Chocolate Can Prevent Damage To The Teeth

Researchers have found that chocolate can prevent damage to the teeth. This was so successful in combating decay that scientists believe are several components that may one day be added to mouthwash or toothpaste. Studies have found that parts of cocoa beans, the main ingredient of chocolate, thwart mouth bacteria and tooth decay. Chocolate has anti-bacterial effect on the mouth and can be effective against plaque and other harmful agents.

Teeth Decay

Teeth decay occurs when bacteria in the mouth turns into acid, which damages the surface of the teeth and cause dental caries. Tooth must have acid producing bacteria around it to prevent the development of decay in the teeth, along with food to feed on the bacteria. Teeth that are susceptible to decay will have little or no fluoride in the enamel to fight plaque. Fluoride to prevent decay, although fluoride will not be able to do much if just once the decay has started to damage the teeth.

The lack of a habit to clean your teeth (brush teeth) will allow the plaque and tartar to build it around teeth and speed up the process of decay. Even though your mouth has many bacteria are always present, but only one type of course which will produce acids that ward off tooth decay.

Some people have active decay that is always happening in their mouths. People with active decay can easily be spread through eating, drinking from the same glass. Once the decay has settled in the tooth enamel, it will run very slowly. Once made it through to the second layer of the email, it will spread faster as the head of the pulp. Pulp is a vital area of ??the tooth, because it contains nerves and blood supply. This is where the pain will be most powerful, because the decay will start touch the nerves.

Pit or fissure decay is a decay that is a bit more serious, forming a narrow groove along the sides of the teeth for chewing. This went much faster, and can damage your teeth much faster than smooth decay. Because the groove is so narrow, it will be difficult to clean with a toothbrush on a regular basis. Even though you may brush your teeth regularly, this type of damage is difficult to prevented without going to the dentist for regular checkups and cleaning.

The last type of tooth decay, the decay of roots, starting at the root surface. This is usually the caused of dry mouth, a lot of sugar, or no dental care. Root decay is the most difficult to be prevented, and the most serious type of tooth decay. It can destroy teeth quickly, the affected tooth decay should be removed because there is no other choice.

Tooth decay is not a light matter, and should always be treated before it decay to spread and affect other teeth. If you are diligent in visiting the dentist for regular checkups and cleaning, you can usually prevent this from scratch.

Chocolate or not, you should always brush your teeth every day, and use mouthwash to kill bacteria!

Final Note:
Between all that chocolate delight don’t forget to come in for your regular checkups and cleaning.

Whaaat? The key to happiness is fresh breath?

Bad breath has often been considered one of the top health faux pas and now new research has suggested that doing away with halitosis can dramatically increase your happiness. A new study, published in the International Journal of Dental Hygiene, looked at the impact of bad breath in relation to people’s quality of life and found that, on average, people who suffered from bad breath were found to be twice as unhappy1 as those who didn’t. By questioning people on specific aspects of their day-to-day lives, the study uncovered those with bad breath had 500% more negative experiences than those with fresh breath. Many of the people who suffered from bad breath said that it negatively impacted them psychologically, in key areas such as self-esteem and confidence.

The strong links between oral health, lifestyle and mental health illustrated by this study has prompted leading charity, the Oral Health Foundation, to encourage people to maintain a good oral health routine and consider the wider health issues associated with poor oral health. Speaking on the issue Dr Nigel Carter OBE, CEO of the Oral Health Foundation, said: “This research is very interesting as it is looking at the important psychological relationship between oral health and mental well being. “Having a good oral health routine can help to improve a person’s outlook on life, positively impact upon their professional life and potentially even improve their personal relationships. Being rid of bad breath can be an important part of this and is usually relatively easy to achieve.

“Bad breath is a very common problem and there are many different causes, it’s not always down to that cheese and onion sandwich at lunchtime. If someone suffers from persistent bad breath it is usually caused by the smelly gases released by the bacteria that coat your teeth, gums and tongue. “Also, bits of food that get caught between the teeth and on the tongue can rot and sometimes cause an unpleasant smell. It is relatively easy to get rid of as long as you brush your teeth for two minutes twice a day with a fluoride toothpaste. “Using a mouthwash or sugar free chewing gum can also be an option in ridding bad breath, but if your bad breath is persistent it is important to get it checked out by your dental team as soon as possible as it could be a sign of gum disease or tooth decay.

“Gum disease and tooth decay are caused by the same bacteria that cause halitosis, usually called plaque. One of the warning signs of gum disease is that you always have bad breath or a bad taste in your mouth, if left untreated this can lead to pain discomfort and even tooth loss. “Your dental team will be able to see and treat the problem during a check-up and the earlier the problems are found, the more effective the treatment will be. “So if you think you might have bad breath, there is a simple test that you can do. Just lick the inside of your wrist, wait for it to dry and sniff – if the smell is bad, you can be fairly sure that your breath is too.

“Or, ask a very good friend to be absolutely honest with you; but do make sure they are a really good friend or you may affect their happiness.”

Credit:
Oral Health Foundation

 

New treatment allows teeth to repair themselves

Dentists have devised a treatment to regenerate rotten teeth that could substantially reduce the need for fillings in the future.

The therapy works by enhancing the natural ability of teeth to repair themselves through the activation of stem cells in the soft pulp at the centre.

Normally, this mechanism is limited to repairing small cracks and holes in dentine, the solid bulk of the tooth beneath the surface enamel. Now scientists have shown that the natural process can be enhanced using an Alzheimer’s drug, allowing the tooth’s own cells to rebuild cavities extending from the surface to the root.

Prof Paul Sharpe, who led the work at King’s College London, said: “Almost everyone on the planet has tooth decay at some time – it’s a massive volume of people being treated. We’ve deliberately tried to make something really simple, really quick and really cheap.”

In the trial, in mice, the team showed that when defects were filled with a biodegradable sponge soaked in the drug, the tooth was gradually able to rebuild itself.

Restoring the tooth’s original dentine structure is preferable because dental cements used in conventional fillings weaken the tooth, leave it prone to future infections – and inevitably erode or detach.

In the case of large cavities, the tooth may eventually need to be extracted after undergoing multiple treatments. The new method, which would encourage natural tooth repair, has the potential to eliminate these issues, according to the scientists.

“The tooth is not just a lump of mineral, it’s got its own physiology. You’re replacing a living tissue with an inert cement,” said Sharpe. “Fillings work fine, but if the tooth can repair itself, surely [that’s] the best way. You’re restoring all the vitality of the tooth.”

The new treatment would not eliminate the need for the dentist’s drill, however, since decaying sections of the tooth would still need to be removed. “Sorry, you’re still going to have the drill, you can’t get away from that, I’m afraid,” said Sharpe.

The therapy relies on a drug called tideglusib, which has been assessed as a potential Alzheimer’s treatment, and which is known to be safe for clinical use.

Previous work by the team has shown that the drug stimulates stem cells in the centre of the tooth, triggering them to develop into odontoblasts (specialised tooth cells) and boosting the production of dentine, allowing larger defects to be reversed. “We get more of the cells, much quicker and they are more active,” said Sharpe.

In the study, published in Scientific Reports, the scientists drilled holes into the teeth of mice, inserted a biodegradable collagen sponge soaked in the drug and sealed the tooth with a dental adhesive.

When the teeth were examined several weeks later, the sponge had degraded and been replaced with new dentine. Collagen sponges are commercially available and clinically-approved. The dental preparation of the tooth would be almost identical to that required for conventional fillings, according to the scientists.

A remaining question is whether the method will scale up successfully to human teeth, in which cavities can be significantly larger. The team are currently testing the technique in rats, whose teeth are about four times larger than those of mice, and if this is successful plan to apply later this year to carry out the first clinical trials in patients.

Ben Scheven, an oral cell biologist at the University of Birmingham, said that preserving the live tooth tissue was increasingly viewed as a priority. “Dentistry is not only about filling and drilling but also about keeping the teeth healthy,” he said. “Especially since it’s an accessible and cheap treatment I can imagine this being used in the clinic.”

Winnie Wong, a dentist based in Hertfordshire, said: “Clinically speaking, the best material is always natural tooth structure, so I’m sure this method will be encouraged by most dentists.”

Wong added that the therapy could “cut down on trauma caused by dentists who are slightly overzealous in their caries removal”. “I think it would be welcomed amongst patients, as no one likes going to the dentist to have fillings and injections, no matter how nice we are!” she said.

Credit:
Science correspondent

Original Article

TMJ pain

Your posture can affect more than just your outward appearance; it can also contribute to TMJ pain. Slouching puts pressure on your jaw joint, which could result in jaw misalignment. Adjusting your posture can help prevent TMJ pain before you experience it.